(Precautionary statements / P statements)
Precautionary statements form part of the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS). They are intended to form a set of standardized phrases giving advice about the correct handling of chemical substances and mixtures, which can be translated into different languages. As such, they serve the same purpose as the well-known S-phrases, which they already have replaced.
Precautionary statements are one of the key elements for the labelling of containers under the GHS, along with:
· An identification of the product
· One or more hazard pictograms (where necessary)
· A signal word − Danger or Warning − where necessary
· Hazard statements, indicating the nature and degree of the risks posed by the product
· The identity of the supplier (which could be a manufacturer or importer)
Each precautionary statement is designated a code, starting with the letter P and followed by three digits. Statements which correspond to related hazards are grouped together by code number, so the numbering is not consecutive. The code is used for reference purposes, for example to help with translations, but it is the actual phrase which should appear on labels and safety data sheets. Some precautionary phrases are combinations, indicated by a plus sign “+”. In several cases, there is a choice of wording, for example “Avoid breathing dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray”: the supplier or regulatory agency should choose the appropriate wording for the product concerned.
General precautionary statements:
P101 If medical advice is needed, have product container or label at hand.
P102 Keep out of reach of children.
P103 Read label before use.
Prevention precautionary statements:
P201 Obtain special instructions before use.
P202 Do not handle until all safety precautions have been read and understood.
P210 Keep away from heat, hot surfaces, sparks, open flames and other ignition sources. No smoking.
P211 Do not spray on an open flame or other ignition source.
P220 Keep/Store away from clothing/…/combustible materials.
P221 Take any precaution to avoid mixing with combustibles.
P222 Do not allow contact with air.
P223 Do not allow contact with water.
P230 Keep wetted with …
P231 Handle under inert gas.
P232 Protect from moisture.
P233 Keep container tightly closed.
P234 Keep only in original container.
P235 Keep cool..
P240 Ground/bond container and receiving equipment.
P241 Use explosion-proof electrical/ventilating/light/…/equipment.
P242 Use only non-sparking tools.
P243 Take precautionary measures against static discharge.
P244 Keep valves and fittings free from oil and grease.
P250 Do not subject to grinding/shock/…/friction.
P251 Do not pierce or burn, even after use.
P260 Do not breathe dust/fumes/gas/mist/vapours/spray.
P261 Avoid breathing dust/fumes/gas/mist/vapours/spray.
P262 Do not get in eyes, on skin, or on clothing.
P263 Avoid contact during pregnancy/while nursing.
P264 Wash … thoroughly after handling.
P270 Do not eat, drink or smoke when using this product.
P271 Use only outdoors or in a well-ventilated area.
P272 Contaminated work clothing should not be allowed out of the workplace.
P273 Avoid release to the environment.
P280 Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection.
P282 Wear cold insulating gloves/face shield/eye protection.
P283 Wear fire/flame resistant/retardant clothing.
P284 Anvend åndedrætsværn.
P285 [In case of inadequate ventilation] wear respiratory protection.
P231 + P232 Handle under inert gas. Protect from moisture.
P235 + P410 Keep cool. Protect from sunlight.
Response precautionary statements:
P301 IF SWALLOWED:
P302 IF ON SKIN:
P303 IF ON SKIN (or hair):
P304 IF INHALED:
P305 IF IN EYES:
P306 IF ON CLOTHING:
P308 IF exposed or concerned:
P310 Immediately call a POISON CENTER/doctor/…
P311 Call a POISON CENTER/ doctor/…
P312 Call a POISON CENTER/ doctor/…/if you feel unwell.
P313 Get medical advice/attention.
P314 Get Medical advice/attention if you feel unwell.
P315 Get immediate medical advice/attention.
P320 Specific treatment is urgent (see … on this label).
P321 Specific treatment (see … on this label).
P330 Rinse mouth.
P331 Do NOT induce vomiting.
P332 If skin irritation occurs:
P333 If skin irritation or a rash occurs:
P334 Immerse in cool water/wrap in wet bandages.
P335 Brush off loose particles from skin.
P336 Thaw frosted parts with lukewarm water. Do not rub affected areas.
P337 If eye irritation persists:
P338 Remove contact lenses if present and easy to do. Continue rinsing.
P340 Remove person to fresh air and keep comfortable for breathing.
P342 If experiencing respiratory symptoms:
P351 Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes.
P352 Wash with plenty of water/…
P353 Rinse skin with water/shower.
P360 Rinse immediately contaminated clothing and skin with plenty of water before removing clothes.
P361 Take off immediately all contaminated clothing.
P362 Take off contaminated clothing.
P363 Wash contaminated clothing before reuse.
P364 And wash it before reuse.
P370 In case of fire:
P371 In case of major fire and large quantities:
P372 Explosion risk in case of fire.
P373 DO NOT fight fire when fire reaches explosives.
P374 Fight fire with normal precautions from a reasonable distance.
P375 Fight fire remotely due to the risk of explosion.
P376 Stop leak if safe to do so.
P377 Leaking gas fire – do not extinguish unless leak can be stopped safely.
P378 Use … to extinguish.
P380 Evacuate area.
P381 Eliminate all ignition sources if safe to do so.
P391 Collect spillage.
P301 + P310 IF SWALLOWED: Immediately call a POISON CENTER/doctor/…
P301 + P312 IF SWALLOWED: Call a POISON CENTER/doctor/…/if you feel unwell.
P301 + P330 + P331 IF SWALLOWED: Rinse mouth. Do NOT induce vomiting.
P302 + P334 IF ON SKIN: Immerse in cool water/wrap in wet bandages.
P302 + P352 IF ON SKIN: Wash with plenty of water/…
P303 + P361 + P353 IF ON SKIN (or hair): Take off immediately all contaminated clothing. Rinse skin with water/ shower.
P304 + P312 IF INHALED: Call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician if you feel unwell.
P304 + P340 IF INHALED: Remove person to fresh air and keep comfortable for breathing.
P305 + P351 + P338 IF IN EYES: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses if present and easy to do –
P306 + P360 IF ON CLOTHING: Rinse immediately contaminated clothing and skin with plenty of water before removing clothes.
P308 + P311 IF exposed or concerned: Call a POISON CENTER/ doctor/…
P308 + P313 IF exposed: Call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician.
P332 + P313 If skin irritation occurs: Get medical advice/attention.
P333 + P313 If skin irritation or a rash occurs: Get medical advice/attention.
P335 + P334 Brush off loose particles from skin. Immerse in cool water/wrap in wet bandages.
P337 + P313 If eye irritation persists get medical advice/attention.
P342 + P311 If experiencing respiratory symptoms: Call a POISON CENTER/doctor/…
P361 + P364 Take off immediately all contaminated clothing and wash it before reuse.
P362 + P364 Take off contaminated clothing and wash it before reuse.
P370 + P376 In case of fire: Stop leak if safe to do so.
P370 + P378 In case of fire: Use … to extinguish.
P370 + P380 In case of fire: Evacuate area.
P370 + P380 + P375 In case of fire: Evacuate area. Fight fire remotely due to the risk of explosion.
P371 + P380 + P375 In case of major fire and large quantities: Evacuate area. Fight fire remotely due to the risk of explosion.
Storage precautionary statements:
P401 Store …
P402 Store in a dry place.
P403 Store in a well ventilated place.
P404 Store in a closed container.
P405 Store locked up.
P406 Store in a corrosive resistant/… container with a resistant inner liner.
P407 Maintain air gap between stacks/pallets.
P410 Protect from sunlight.
P411 Store at temperatures not exceeding … °C/… °F.
P412 Do not expose to temperatures exceeding 50 °C/122 °F.
P413 Store bulk masses greater than … kg/… lbs at temperatures not exceeding … °C/… °F.
P420 Store away from other materials.
P422 Store contents under …
P402 + P404 Store in a dry place. Store in a closed container.
P403 + P233 Store in a well ventilated place. Keep container tightly closed.
P403 + P235 Store in a well ventilated place. Keep cool.
P410 + P403 Protect from sunlight. Store in a well-ventilated place.
P410 + P412 Protect from sunlight. Do not expose to temperatures exceeding 50 °C/122 °F.
P411 + P235 Store at temperatures not exceeding … °C/… °F. Keep cool.
Disposal precautionary statements:
P501 Dispose of contents/container to … (in accordance with local/regional/national/international regulation [to be specified]).